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Catedral de Segovia, Segovia, España
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Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain. Its the capital of Segovia Province.

The name of Segovia is of Celtiberian origin. The first inhabitants named the city Segobriga. This name comes from two terms of the Celtiberian language of the Celtic branch of Indo-European. The term Sego means «victory» (the prefix is also present in other city names such as Segeda and Segontia) and the suffix -briga would mean «city» or «strength». So the name might be translated as City of the victory or Victorious city"

Under the Romans and Arabs, the city was called Segovia and Šiqūbiyyah respectively.

Segovia is one of nine provinces that make up the autonomous region of Castile and León. It is neighboured by Burgos and Valladolid to the north, Ávila to the west, Madrid and Guadalajara to the south and Soria to the east. The altitude of the province varies from 750 m in the extreme northwest to a maximum of 2,430 m at Peñalara peak. The town is part of the main route of the Camino de Santiago de Madrid.

Segovia was first recorded as a Celtic possession, with control eventually transferring into the hands of the Romans. The city is a possible site of the battle in 75 BCE where Metellus was victorius over the general of Sertorius, Hirtuleius. Hirtuleius died in the fighting.

During the Roman period the settlement belonged to one of numerous contemporary Latin convents. It is believed that the city was abandoned after the Islamic invasion of Spain centuries later. After the conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the son of King Alfonso VI, Segovia began restocking with Christians from the north of the peninsula and beyond the Pyrenees, providing it with a significant sphere of influence whose boundaries crossed the Sierra de Guadarrama and the Tagus.

Segovia’s position on nomadic trading routes made it an important center of trade in wool and textiles. The end of the Middle Ages saw something of a golden age for Segovia, with a growing Jewish population and the creation of a foundation for a powerful cloth industry. Several splendid works of Gothic architecture were also completed during this period. Notably, Isabella I was proclaimed queen of Castile in the church of San Miguel de Segovia on December 13, 1474.

Like most Castilian textile centers, Segovia joined the Revolt of the Comuneros under the command of Juan Bravo. Despite the defeat of the Communities, the city’s resultant economic boom continued into the sixteenth century, its population rising to 27,000 in 1594. Then, as well as almost all the cities of Castile, Segovia entered a period of decline. Only a century later in 1694, the population had been reduced to only 8,000 inhabitants. In the early eighteenth century, Segovia attempted to revitalize its textile industry, with little success. In the second half of the century, Charles III made another attempt to revive the region’s commerce; it took the form of the Royal Segovian Wool Manufacturing Company (1763). However, the lack of competitiveness of production caused the crown withdraw its sponsorship in 1779. In 1764, the Royal School of Artillery, the first military academy in Spain, was opened. This academy remains present in the city today. In 1808, Segovia was sacked by French troops during the War of Independence. During the First Carlist War, troops under the command of Don Carlos unsuccessfully attacked the city. During the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, Segovia experienced a demographic recovery that was the result of relative economic stability.

In 1985 the old city of Segovia and its Aqueduct were declared World Heritage by UNESCO. Within the environment of the old city, stand diversity of historic buildings both civil and religious, not just catholics but also Jews, like the district that served this minority, which commemorates the different cultures in the city. One of the best examples of this cultural diversity is represented by the former synagogue, now the church of Corpus, and the Jewish cemetery located in El Pinarillo with its interpretation center in the most important Jewish palace of the Spanish aljamas, the chief accountant Meir Melamed, son-in-law and successor of Abraham Senior, chief rabbi of the Kingdom of Castile, Melamed after converting to Christianity under the name of Fernán Núñez Coronel, was alderman of the city and occupied important positions in the kingdom. Among its monuments are:

The Aqueduct of Segovia, located in the emblematic Plaza del Azoguejo, is the staple of the city. The date of its construction, which could be carried out at the end of the 1st century or early 2nd century, and it is the roman civil engineering work most important in Spain. was applied to about 25,000 granite blocks together without any mortar, has a length of 818 meters, consists of more than 170 bows and hand highest is 29 meters, as it reaches the Azoguejo, the most visited area.

The Alcazar of Segovia, the royal palace located on top of a rock between the rivers Eresma and Clamores, is documented for the first time in 1122, although it may exist in earlier time. It was one of the favorite residences of the kings of Castile, built in the transition from Romanesque to Gothic and Mudéjar decor highlighting its ample rooms. The building is structured around two courtyards and has two towers, the Keep and John II. It was a favorite residence of Alfonso X the Wise and Henry IV, and Isabella the Catholic left him to be crowned Queen of Castile in the main square. Devastated by fire in 1862, was later rebuilt. Now houses the General Militar de Segovia archive and museum of the Royal School of Artillery, managed by the Board of the Alcazar.

The Segovia Cathedral is the last Gothic cathedral built in Spain. It is considered the masterpiece of Basque-Castilian Gothic and is known as "The Lady of Cathedrals." This is the third largest cathedral in the city, and retains the cloister of the second, located opposite the castle and destroyed during the Revolt of the Comuneros in 1520. In his works he worked Juan and Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón, and other teachers of Spanish architecture. It was consecrated in 1768 and has dimensions of 105 meters long, 50 meters wide and 33 high in the nave, has 18 chapels and has three doors: El Perdón, San Frutos and San Geroteo, first bishop of the diocese.

The Walls of Segovia existed when Alfonso VI of León and Castile took the city to the Arabs, who commanded a larger coming to have a perimeter of 3 kilometers, eighty towers, five doors and several doors. It was built mainly with granite blocks, but also reused gravestones of the Roman necropolis. The wall runs along the old, and currently maintains three doors: San Cebrián, of great austerity, Santiago, of Mudéjar looking, and San Andrés, gateway to the Jewish quarter, and the breaches of Consuelo, San Juan, the Sun and Moon.

Religious architecture
The city maintains an important collection of Romanesque churches of both stone and brick, which include San Esteban, San Millán, San Martín, la Santísima Trinidad, San Andrés, San Clemente, Santos Justo y Pastor, la Vera Cruz and San Salvador and others . It also retains many convents and monasteries such as San Antonio el Real, del Parral or San Vicente el Real.
The Old main synagogue is a remainder of Jewish Segovia.

Civil architecture
The Ayala Berganza Castilian Palace dating from the late 15th century, declared a Historic-Artistic Monument, now converted into tourist accommodation, Carretas street, 5. Due to a multiple murder happened in the late 19th century is known by Segovia as "the house of the crime."
The civil architecture, with many palaces, medieval facades, doorways, patios, columns, shields and turrets. It can highlight a number of covers on the Daoíz street, the Casa del Sello in the San Francisco street, the Casa-Museo del Torreón de Lozoya in the Plaza de San Martín, the Casa del Siglo XV (or of Juan Bravo), the House of the Count Alpuente (City council), the Casa de los Picos and others in the Calle Real.
The traditional civil architecture in Segovia style tile roof and decorated in the traditional sgraffiti on the walls.
The oldest tavern in the town dates from 1861 and is La Taberna Rubi, located a few steps from the Plaza Mayor.
The Casa de la Moneda, the oldest industrial building in Europe.

Segovia Cathedral is a Roman Catholic religious church in Segovia, Spain. It is located in the main square of the city, the Plaza Mayor, and is dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

The massive cathedral was built between 1525-1577 in a late Gothic style, an architectural style that was becoming retardataire elsewhere in Europe. The prior cathedral of Segovia had stood adjacent to the Alcazar, and had been used by the besieged royal armies in their defense. The rebellious Comuneros were intent on taking the Cathedral to protect its holy relics, and to use its position against the walls of the Alcazar in order to defeat its defenders. In a famous exchange, prominent city officials urged the comuneros to halt their attacks on the church that they should consider the injustice of razing a temple, so sumptuous, while making war against those who serving their king, defended his Alcazar. But their plea fell on deaf ears, and the comuneros replied: la Iglesia era de la Ciudad (the Church belonged to the City). After a bitter siege lasting months, the cathedral lay in ruins.

Fearful of a repeat assault, the cathedral was relocated to the present site and built using a design by the Trasmeran mason named Juan Gil de Hontañón, and the work was continued by his son Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.

The building has a structure in three tall vaults and ambulatory, with fine tracery windows set, and numerous stained glass. The interior is characterized by unity of style (late Gothic), except for the dome, built around 1630 by Pedro de Brizuela. Gothic vaults rise to 33 meters high and measures 50 meters wide and 105 long. The bell tower reaches almost 90 meters. The current stone spire crowning the tower, dating from 1614, was erected after a major fire caused by a thunderstorm. The original spire, entirely Gothic, was built of american mahogany had pyramidal structure, and was the tallest tower in Spain.

Among the most prominent chapels are that of the Santísimo Sacramento, with a Reredo by José de Churriguera, and the Chapel of San Andrés, with a Tryptich of the Deposition by Ambrosius Benson; and the chapel of the Deposition with the recumbent Christ by Gregorio Fernández.

The retablo mayor, or main reredos, of the cathedral was carved by Francisco Sabatini, and is dedicated to the Virgin of the Peace. It is adorned with the Segovian Saints Frutos, Geroteo, Valentín and Engracia. The choir has gothic seating.

The cathedral museum has works by Pedro Berruguete, Sánchez Coello and Van Orley, and the cathedral archives have one of the first printed books published in Spain: the Sinodal de Aguilafuente.

North nave
Capilla de San Andrés Apóstol
Capilla de San Cosme y San Damián
Capilla de San Gregorio
Capilla de la Concepción

South nave
Capilla del Cristo Yacente (Reclining Christ)
Capilla de Santa Bárbara
Capilla de Santiago Apóstol
Capilla del Cristo del Consuelo

Crescentius of Rome
Saint Fructus (d. 715), and his siblings Saint Valentine (Valentín) and Saint Engratia (Engracia).

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